Pelvic Floor Physiotherapy

What is Pelvic Floor Physiotherapy

To Kegel or NOT?

That is the question!! Kegels are not for everyone, and even when indicated are often not done properly!

Specialized Physiotherapy is becoming more established in the literature as a first-line of defence against Incontinence and Pelvic Pain. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction can be caused by:

  • HYPOTONICITY (Weak pelvic floor muscles): contributing to stress incontinence, urge incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Incontinence is NOT a normal part of aging
  • HYPERTONICITY (Tight pelvic floor muscles): contributing to Urinary and Fecal Urgency, Urge Incontinence, Chronic Pelvic Pain, Dyspareunia, Vaginismus, Vulvodynia, Pudendal Neuralgia, Interstitial Cystitis and Chronic Prostatitis

medical accurate illustration of the hip ligamentsKegels are NOT always indicated for pelvic floor problems. Sometimes they do more harm than good, and often they are NOT performed correctly.


The Cochrane Collaboration 2010 concluded that Physiotherapists with specialized training in pelvic floor rehabilitation (using internal examination to teach the exercises) should be the first line of defence, before surgical consultation, for stress, urge and mixed incontinence in women.


Many people with pelvic pain have pelvic floor dysfunction, but specifically hypertonic muscles, or muscles that are too tight. The pelvic floor muscles are a group of muscles that attach to the front, back and sides of the pelvic bone and sacrum. They are like a hammock or a sling, and they support the bladder, uterus, prostate and rectum. They also wrap around your urethra, rectum, and vagina (in women).


These muscles must be able to contract to maintain continence and relax to allow for urination, bowel movements, and in women, sexual intercourse.


When these muscles have too much tension (hypertonic) they will often cause pelvic pain or urgency and frequency of the bladder and bowels. When they are low-tone (hypotonic) they will contribute to stress incontinence and organ prolapse. You can also have a combination of muscles that are too tense and too relaxed.


Hypertonic muscles can cause the following symptoms:

  • Urinary frequency, urgency, hesitancy, stopping and starting of the urine stream, painful urination, or incomplete emptying
  • Constipation, straining, pain with bowel movements
  • Unexplained pain in your low back, pelvic region, hips, genital area, or rectum
  • Pain during or after intercourse, orgasm, or sexual stimulation
  • Uncoordinated muscle contractions causing the pelvic floor muscles to spasm
  • Pelvic floor dysfunction is diagnosed by specially trained doctors and physiotherapists by using internal and external “hands-on” or manual techniques to evaluate the function of the pelvic floor muscles. They will also assess your ability to contract and relax these muscles. Your bones and muscles of your lower back, hips and sacro-iliac joints will need to be assessed as well since these joints can stress your pelvic floor muscles.

If an internal examination is too painful, the connective tissue of your abdomen, thighs, groins and low back are often very tight. The connective tissue forms the container of the muscles, and this tissue often needs to be relaxed before any internal work can be done.


When your pelvic floor muscles are tight and weak, the tension is treated before the weakness. Once the muscles have reached a normal resting tone, and are able to relax fully, their strength is reassessed and strengthening exercises are prescribed, if appropriate.


Self-care is an important part of treatment. Avoid pushing or straining when urinating and ask your health care provider about how to treat constipation. Relaxing the muscles in the pelvic floor area is important, and doing reverse kegels may be one way to help lengthen and relax these muscles. Using methods such as warm baths twice daily can also be helpful.


Medication such as compounded vaginal or rectal diazepam can be quite helpful and may be prescribed by your doctor. These medications can be used as local muscles relaxants in the vagina or rectum. Good posture to keep pressure off your bladder and pelvic organs, and other stretching techniques such as yoga, can be helpful to avoid tightening and spasms in the pelvic floor muscles as well.


Persistent pain education is an important part of treating pelvic floor dysfunction since the pelvic area is an area that we often hold our stress. Anxiety, stress and our thoughts, attitudes and beliefs can perpetuate the pain in our pelvis; understanding how our pain system works has shown to be an effective way of reducing the threat of ongoing pelvic floor dysfunction.

Men’s Pelvic Health

Portrait of a thoughtful mature man sitting on a sofaPelvic Health concerns are coming to the forefront. Pelvic floor physiotherapy can be extremely helpful to address some of the challenges that men may have when their pelvic floors are not working properly including:

  • Post-Prostatectomy Incontinence
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Pelvic Pain including Chronic Prostatitis, Testicular and Penile pain syndromes
  • Nocturia (frequent urination at night)
  • Symptoms of retention which can often be associated with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and/or a tight pelvic floor
  • Tight Pelvic Floor
  • Chronic Constipation

Mens pelvic health has fallen behind in research, and recognition of pelvic floor muscle problems as they relate to overall health, specifically urogenital health. Pelvic health problems have received more attention from the medical community in general for women, leaving men confused, isolated and searching for answers.

Women’s Pelvic Health

Women’s Pelvic Health

Pelvic Floor physiotherapy is becoming more established in the research as a first line of defence against Incontinence and Pelvic Pain for women. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction can be caused by:

  • Hypotonicity(Weak Pelvic Floor Muscles): Weak pelvic floor muscles can contribute to Stress Incontinence and Pelvic Organ Prolapse. Incontinence is NOT a normal part of aging.
  • Hypertonicity (Tight Pelvic Floor Muscles): Tight pelvic floor muscles can contribute to Urinary and Fecal Urgency, Urge Incontinence, Chronic Pelvic Pain, Dyspareunia, Vaginismus, Vulvodynia, Pudendal Neuralgia, and Interstitial Cystitis


When our pelvic floor muscles are unhealthy they can cause a host of problems as mentioned above. Women need to connect with these very important muscles again. No other set of voluntary muscles (muscles that we have direct control over) is as important, and yet is so consistently ignored in medicine and in our exercise regimes. These important muscles have five major functions including:

  • Maintaining continence of our bladder and bowel
  • Allowing sexual function and pleasure
  • Providing support to our internal organs so that our bladder, uterus, and intestines stay in the abdominal cavity where they belong
  • Providing support for our low back so that we can function without pain
  • Helps our circulatory system get the blood and other body fluids from the legs back to the trunk and heart

We need to connect with our pelvic floor muscles (know how to keep them strong, yet relaxed) throughout our life span to ensure that we have healthy functioning of all of these important activities.

Treating the Root of the Problem NOT the Symptoms

Your treatment will be personalized and provided by a Pelvic Floor Physiotherapist to ensure the best, long-lasting results. To ensure that you receive the optimal treatment that will be most beneficial to your individual needs, book your FREE CONSULTATION and speak to our therapist today!